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PROFILE OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF KUKILAND (DRK)
People’s Democratic Republic of Kukiland (PDRK) was founded on the 1st January 2018 under public mandatory and pressure after the five-months-long online campaigns and awareness through the widespread on social media platforms. The ideology which aimed to restore the sovereignty of Kukiland in a form of ‘Popular Sovereignty’ or ‘Political Sovereignty’ comes after the prolonged defensive war against the British government fought by our forefathers since the colonialism ideology was violently imposed on Kuki Independent Hill Country since the 1760s.
The Kukis had fought against them for safeguarding Kuki sovereign rights and their country from such external disturbances continuously. With the help of that restoration ideology and the present political scenario of the world the “Democratic Republic of Kukiland (DRK)” came into being as a key to roll back both the policy of colonialism and neo-colonialism away from Kukiland.
The sovereign rights of the Kukis had been buried under the world most hated neo-colonialism culture powered by India, Burma and Bangladesh is the hardest way of political life experience by the Kukis. It also directly violates the ‘Universal Declaration of Human Rights’ adopted by the United Nations. Kuki people are fit to be given recognition of sovereignty under the ‘Rights to Self-Determination’ declared by the UNPFII.
Kuki sovereignty was demolished by the British colonial government after 158 long years war since the 1760s to 1919. For a defence of Kukiland from colonial aggression, a three-year-long war was fought against them, which is popularly known as ‘The Great Anglo-Kuki War 1917-1919“, recorded by eminent scholars of the world.
After the British had left India, we and our country were divided into two segments, one part under Indian administration and the other in under Myanmar administration and we become a minority in our own country. After Bangladesh was given independence in 1971, parts of our land and people were transferred under Bangladesh administration without our consent and pre-consultation.
The government of India, Burma, and Bangladesh denied to recognized our indigenous identity and today we cannot peacefully use our political identity name ‘KUKI’ in our own ancestral land. Even our history is denied and then the government of India had denied recognition of our identity and in exchange recognized only the tribes hanging under the branch of Kuki are recognized as ‘Schedule Tribe’ under Tribe Modification Order 1956. In India, Schedule Tribe means non-indigenous, which means Kuki indigenous political identity and their unique history and their ancestral land rights were exterminated within its own jurisdiction is a crime. Because Kukis did not fight against the British for safeguarding India but for the Kukiland only. It means Kukis are a separate entity and a nation that has a complex nature and way of life totally opposite to that of India. The unity of Indian society is designed under ‘Unity in Diversity’, however, that of the Kukis’ is ‘Unity in Brotherhood’ and scientifically bind by genetic ancestry and the same linguistic family lines. As a result, India has no rights to handle Kuki causes and should not disturb their rights to self-determination.
In so much as we became Schedule Tribe in India, we lost our identity, historical rights, political rights to redress our own cause, as such, development from the government turned itself converting into enemy since we need to lost our ancestral land if we welcome development. Therefore, Kukiland becomes dry and desolated. Due to the bad condition of economy certain ethnicity had created armed militants organizations in search of autonomy for the welfare of their own community and the region became an artificial conflict zone. Under such condition, instead of developing the area, the government of India had declared the area as ‘Disturb Area’ and imposed a draconian ‘Armed Force Special Power Act, 1958. The policy of ‘divide and rule’ have been applied for disuniting the Kuki tribes of North East India and communal tension had erupted automatically amongst the ethnic lines.
Kuki People were also demarcated by the Linguistic Survey of India, (1904), Vol. III, Part III.
Thus, the map of our country was also drawn by the Colonial government which is still available in the archive of Cornwall University. Kukis are qualified to determine their own rights, economic and social affairs under the Rights to Self-Determination declared by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People (UNDRIP). The criteria set by the United Nation’s Resolution entitled, ‘ Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and People, Resolution no. 1514 (XV), on 14th December 1960 is maturely covered the rights of Kuki People to attain our long lost Sovereignty. After a thorough study about Kuki Political Philosophy and international political philosophy, the Kuki people became aware of their true ideology and awaken from the long sleep.
The ideology of DRK covers Historically and Linguistically demarcated Kuki Country Independent Hill Country and accepted the people living within the geographically demarcated Kuki Country as one nation and one people.
The people are linguistically interconnected. Among the Tibeto-Burman speaking groups, Kuki people are demarcated under ‘Kuki-Chin Linguistic Identity’ and every tribe under Kuki are speaking a similar language and have little dialectical difference between them, but communicable and
identical to each other.
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:
Kukis are a ‘People’ living independently in their own hill country. Govern by their own complex laws, custom, traditions, and cultures. Their traditional government was called Kuki Inpi. However, the Kuki government was gradually broken down due to the 158-long-year war against the British government for safeguarding their rights and sovereign country threatened and intruded by them since the 1760s and ended with the three-year-long Great War recorded as ‘Anglo-Kuki War 1917-1919. Thus, Kukis were left under the roof of India, Burma (Myanmar) and Bangladesh administration without the official consultation and their consent. Therefore, the Kuki People directly qualify to bring back their own self-determination based on the philosophy of the United Nations’ norms as follow:
(a). To bring lasting peace, security and healthy socio-economic development for the welfare of the Kuki
People within their own territory, technically demarcated under Linguistic Survey of India (1904), Volume III, Part III.
(b). To bring peace and a good development through re-establishment of sovereignty under the laws and norms set by the United Nations Organization;
(c). Aims to bring One God, One Religion and One Nation in historically demarcated Kukiland according to the visionary framework of Eastern Bengal Regulation Act 1873.
(d). To bring sustainable development and equal share and economy within the Kukis under UNDP norms and vision of “End of Poverty”.
(e). To protect the rights of the Kukis from external threat through non-violence and peaceful development basis under the international laws.
Digging deep into the international political philosophy, the DRK is preparing ways to bring back the free state of Kukiland through international diplomatic approach corresponding to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Resolution adopted by the UNPFII on 13th September 2007. Under the Rights to Self-Determination, the Kuki People need to achieve it’s Political Sovereignty’ recognition from the United Nations.
GEOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTION OF KUKILAND RECORDED BY THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT
Kuki country’s terrain is contiguous. In present-day geographical terms, the ancestral land of the Kukis is situated within the so-called present-day North-east India, North-west Burma and the Chittagong Hill Tract in Bangladesh. Kuki country, at present India, has been divided into parts of Assam, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland and Manipur; in Burma mainly in the Sagaing Division, the Chin Hills, Arakan and in Bangladesh the Chittagong Hill Tracts.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica (1962, vol xiii, 511) records, ‘Kuki, a name given to a group of tribes inhabiting both sides of the mountains dividing Assam and Bengal from Burma, south of the Namtaleik River.’ A detailed delineation of Kuki Country was marked out by G.A. Grierson (1904), in Linguistic
Survey of India (1904, Vol. 111, Part. 111) :
The territory inhabited by the Kuki tribes extends from the Naga Hills in the north down into the Sandoway District of Burma in the south; from Myittha River in the east, almost to the Bay of Bengal in the west. It is almost entirely filled up by hills and mountain ridges, separated by deep valleys. A great chain of mountains suddenly rises from the plains of Eastern Bengal, about 220 miles north of Calcutta, and stretches eastward in a broadening mass of spurs and ridges, called successively the Garo, Khasia, and Naga Hills. The elevation of the highest point increases towards the east, from about 3,000 feet in the Garo Hills to 8,000 and 9,000 in the region of Manipur. This chain merges, in the east, into the spurs, which the Himalayas shoot out from the north of Assam towards the south. From here a great mass of mountain ridges starts southwards, enclosing the alluvial valley of Manipur, and thence spreads out westwards to the south of Sylhet. It then runs almost due north and south, with cross-ridges of smaller elevation, through the districts known as the Chin Hills, the Lushai Hills, Hill Tipperah, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Farther south the mountainous region continues, through the Arakan hill tract and the Arakan Yoma, until it finally sinks into the sea at Cape Negrais, the total length of the range being some seven hundred miles. The greatest elevation is found to the north of Manipur. Thence it gradually diminishes towards the south. Where the ridge enters the north of Arakan it again rises, with summit upwards of 8,000 feet high, and here a mass of spurs is thrown off in all directions. Towards the south the western off-shoots diminish in length, leaving a track of alluvial land between them and the sea, while in the north the eastern off-shoots of the Arakan Yoma run down to the banks of the Irrawaddy This vast mountainous region, from the Jaintia and Naga Hills in the north, is the home of the Kuki tribes. We find them, besides, in the valley of Manipur, and, in small settlements, in the Cachar plains Sylhet.
Published by Kuki Government/DRK